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2.3万亿 收费公路何以债台高筑?

J9九游会AG 发布时间:2012-11-29

治理收(shou)费公(gong)路,J9九游会AG 无法绕过这2.3万(wan)亿的债务包(bao)袱(fu)(fu)。而要想(xiang)摘除这个(ge)包(bao)袱(fu)(fu),政府首先必须向收(shou)费公(gong)路的高(gao)额(e)“管理成本”开刀(dao)。

  交通运(yun)输部2011年11月25日称,截至11月11日,全(quan)国有(you)收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)公(gong)路的所有(you)省(sheng)份均已公(gong)布收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)公(gong)路调查摸底结果。除西藏无收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)公(gong)路外,其他(ta)30个省(sheng)份收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)公(gong)路累(lei)计债务(wu)余额(e)近2.3万(wan)亿元(yuan),收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)公(gong)路去年收(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)额(e)为2859.46亿元(yuan)。

  中国那么多收(shou)费公(gong)路(lu),一(yi)(yi)年(nian)数千亿(yi)(yi)(yi)的(de)收(shou)费规模,收(shou)了这么多年(nian),竟然倒欠下2.3万(wan)亿(yi)(yi)(yi)的(de)巨(ju)债,这样的(de)摸底结(jie)果真是要跌碎一(yi)(yi)地(di)眼(yan)镜。收(shou)费公(gong)路(lu)何以债台高(gao)筑(zhu),从交通部门公(gong)布的(de)数据(ju),不(bu)难找到(dao)答案(an):各地(di)每年(nian)巨(ju)额(e)的(de)公(gong)路(lu)收(shou)费,均(jun)有(you)(you)相当(dang)大部分未用(yong)于还(hai)贷(dai)——2010年(nian),安徽一(yi)(yi)年(nian)约94亿(yi)(yi)(yi)公(gong)路(lu)收(shou)费,用(yong)于还(hai)贷(dai)的(de)只(zhi)(zhi)有(you)(you)不(bu)到(dao)54亿(yi)(yi)(yi);河北(bei)一(yi)(yi)年(nian)收(shou)费203亿(yi)(yi)(yi),还(hai)贷(dai)只(zhi)(zhi)有(you)(you)101亿(yi)(yi)(yi);广西(xi)一(yi)(yi)年(nian)收(shou)费66亿(yi)(yi)(yi),还(hai)贷(dai)只(zhi)(zhi)有(you)(you)30亿(yi)(yi)(yi)……

  那么,动(dong)辄数十亿(yi)上百亿(yi)的资金,不去(qu)还贷(dai),到底用在(zai)了哪儿?除了固(gu)定的税(shui)费(fei)(fei)支出(chu),其(qi)他无疑都是(shi)收费(fei)(fei)公路的“管理成(cheng)本”,包(bao)括养(yang)护折旧支出(chu)、运营管理支出(chu)、薪酬福(fu)利(li)支出(chu)等等。

  然而,所(suo)谓“管理成(cheng)(cheng)本”,注水成(cheng)(cheng)分往往很大(da),对此,媒体曾一(yi)次次掀开冰山一(yi)角——河南(nan)一(yi)段98.8公里收(shou)(shou)费(fei)公路,却(que)养了(le)403名(ming)职(zhi)工,这还不包括保(bao)安(an)、后(hou)勤(qin)人(ren)(ren)员;温州苍南(nan)一(yi)二(er)级收(shou)(shou)费(fei)站,职(zhi)工竟有113人(ren)(ren);上市(shi)公司宁沪高(gao)速,逾(yu)九成(cheng)(cheng)员工的学(xue)历没有达到大(da)学(xue)本科(ke),但其人(ren)(ren)均(jun)税(shui)前收(shou)(shou)入达到10.5万元(yuan)。而审计部门也(ye)多次披(pi)露,一(yi)些(xie)(xie)省市(shi)收(shou)(shou)费(fei)公路大(da)量挪用通行费(fei)收(shou)(shou)入,其中一(yi)些(xie)(xie)被用于建(jian)楼堂馆(guan)所(suo)、投(tou)资(zi)股票(piao)和对外投(tou)资(zi)。

  眼(yan)下,在国家统一整(zheng)(zheng)顿(dun)的(de)(de)高压下,各(ge)地(di)都在整(zheng)(zheng)改,现有收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)公(gong)路(lu)(lu)、收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)期限(xian)、收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)标准、收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)站(点)等面临(lin)重新(xin)审核。可以预料,未来(lai)(lai)(lai)收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)公(gong)路(lu)(lu)减(jian)少,收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)期限(xian)缩(suo)减(jian)、收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)标准降低,收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)站撤并将是(shi)个趋势,随之带来(lai)(lai)(lai)的(de)(de)是(shi)公(gong)路(lu)(lu)收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)总额(e)(e)的(de)(de)降低,经济(ji)民生的(de)(de)减(jian)负。不过(guo)问题的(de)(de)另一面在于,公(gong)路(lu)(lu)收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)总额(e)(e)降低,很(hen)可能意味着本来(lai)(lai)(lai)就很(hen)低的(de)(de)还贷额(e)(e)将更(geng)加缩(suo)减(jian),还贷的(de)(de)周期将延长,如此一来(lai)(lai)(lai),取消公(gong)路(lu)(lu)收(shou)(shou)(shou)费(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)(fei)会不会遥遥无期?

  当然,J9九游会AG 或可通过行政(zheng)手段(duan)一刀切(qie),只要收(shou)(shou)费(fei)到期(qi),无论是否(fou)还清贷款(kuan)都(dou)必须停止收(shou)(shou)费(fei)。但(dan)之前收(shou)(shou)费(fei)公(gong)路欠下(xia)的巨额债务怎(zen)么办?除(chu)非政(zheng)府财政(zheng)买(mai)单,否(fou)则(ze)只有变成银行坏账了,而(er)这两个结果最终都(dou)是全体纳税人来承(cheng)担(dan)损失,明显都(dou)不合(he)理。

  因此,治理(li)(li)收费公路,J9九游会AG 无法绕过这(zhei)2.3万亿的(de)债务包袱。而(er)要想摘除这(zhei)个包袱,政府首先必须向收费公路的(de)高额“管理(li)(li)成本(ben)”开刀,对“管理(li)(li)成本(ben)”同样(yang)展开全国摸底,并向社(she)会公布摸底结果。在此基础上,为(wei)收费公路“管理(li)(li)成本(ben)”建(jian)立明晰标准,严格(ge)进(jin)行压(ya)缩和(he)控制。

  此外(wai),应(ying)推(tui)动收费公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路运营(ying)、养护成(cheng)本(ben)及(ji)人员薪(xin)酬(chou)福(fu)利(li)开(kai)支的信息(xi)(xi)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)开(kai)。“信息(xi)(xi)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)开(kai)条(tiao)例(li)”规定:与(yu)人民群众利(li)益密切相关的公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)共(gong)企事(shi)业单位在提(ti)供社会公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)共(gong)服务过(guo)程中制作、获取的信息(xi)(xi)的公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)开(kai),参(can)照本(ben)条(tiao)例(li)执行。收费公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路不(bu)能(neng)(neng)成(cheng)为信息(xi)(xi)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)开(kai)的盲(mang)区,让公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)众参(can)与(yu)监督收费公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路管理,才(cai)能(neng)(neng)从外(wai)部建立起(qi)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路收费的约束机制,从而让收费公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路整顿(dun)跳出“治乱循环”的怪圈。

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